The most popular digital audio file formats, which include MP3 and AAC, employ lossy compression. Here, audio is split into frequency bands for each time interval. According to a model of the human auditory system, bands deemed inaudible due to the presence of louder frequencies are discarded or encoded using fewer bits.

Lossy compression results in much smaller files sizes, but reduced quality. Many of us won’t notice the difference when listening to our music on a portable player through a tiny earpiece, possibly with traffic noise in the background, but it’s most definitely present - especially at the higher compression ratios these codecs support.

When MP3 was developed more than 20 years ago, storage was expensive and PCs were lucky to have a 540MB hard drive - roughly 2,000 times lower in capacity than what’s popular today. Given that MP3 files are typically only 11 times smaller than uncompressed files, we can now afford to store more uncompressed audio. We also have audio formats at our disposal that use lossless compression, which slightly reduces the file size without affecting quality.

It might be easy to stick with the MP3 format when ripping tracks from CD, but all it takes to switch to uncompressed audio is to change a single setting. The ripping process should then take less time to complete, since less compression work is involved, although you won’t be able to store quite as many files in the same amount of space. If you choose to adopt lossless compression for your portable media player, you’ll still be able to store around 600 tracks on an 8GB device.

Here, we delve into the practicalities of recording and playing music tracks with small amounts of compression or even none at all.

Audio formats revealed

The most common format for uncompressed audio is Waveform Audio, which is usually referred to simply as WAV. Assuming a decent bit-depth and sample frequency, its quality is unsurpassed, since no information is discarded. Alternative formats can outdo it only by achieving the same quality and reducing the file size.

The most common format for compressed audio is MP3. This has various data-rate options, from 8 kilobits per second (kbps) to 320kbps. CD’s sampling rate of 44.1kHz and 16bit depth, for example, represents a reduction in file size of between four and 176 times. As a lossy form of compression, though, the quality isn’t as good as it is with uncompressed audio, particularly at the lower bitrates.

AAC is a similar lossy format, although it’s estimated that the file sizes are about two thirds that of MP3 for the same quality.

The two most common formats that use lossless compression (and sound as good as WAV) are Free Lossless Audio Codec (Flac) and Apple Lossless, often referred to as Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC). Also important to the audio quality are the sampling rate and bit-depth. These are measures of how many times per second the audio was sampled during recording and how many bits were stored per sample.

Files ripped from CD are fixed at 44.1kHz and 16bit, but in selecting music for download you should look out for higher quality sampling (such as 48, 96 or 192kHz at 20 or 24bit). WAV, Flac and Apple Lossless all extend support beyond 44.1kHz/16bit.

High-quality hardware

For many years, hi-fi purists insisted that the earlier a component is in the playback chain the more important it is. The implication of this is that the CD player (or optical drive) is more important than the amplifier (or sound card) which, in turn, is more important than the speakers.

Working on this basis, if you want to improve the audio quality of music playback on a PC, the first line of attack should be to move from a lossy to a lossless format. While we wouldn’t disagree that this is vitally important, it would also be wrong to suggest that the hardware is unimportant. In fact, it could well be that you won’t notice the improvement provided by better-quality audio until you upgrade from the cheap audio hardware bundled with most PCs.

The best approach for listening to high quality audio is to route the audio from your PC to a decent hi-fi system, taking the output from as early as possible in the playback chain.

If you really do want to listen to music on your computer, though, the easiest and cheapest upgrade would be to get a better-quality speaker set. Don’t ignore your sound card (or chipset) and its associated amplifier; consider upgrading this to an external sound adaptor.

Rip audio files to a lossless format

Step 1. Although file-format compatibility depends on the playback software you use, your audio hardware might limit the sampling rate. Find out if your hardware is capable of 24bit audio at 96kHz and 192kHz by downloading the relevant test files from this site.

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Step 2. These test files are in Flac format, which isn’t supported by Windows Media Player (WMP). Instead, download and install VLC Media Player. Try listening to the test files; if one or both won’t play then you’ll either have to stick with lower sampling rates (you can still use lossless compression) or upgrade.

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Step 3. You can now play Flac files, but only in VLC. If you prefer to stick with WMP, download and install the Direct Show filters. Launch WMP and open the sample files. You’ll find that you can now listen to Flac files in WMP and various other audio formats will also have become available.

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Step 4. Note that Flac files still won’t show up in WMP’s library. To correct this, install the upgrade. Reports suggest that this works differently on some PCs; if Flac files still don’t appear in the library, delete all the library entries (but not the files themselves) and allow WMP to rebuild its directory.

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Step 5. If WMP still refuses to include your new files in the library, it’s possible that the library has become corrupted. This can be resolved using the appropriate troubleshooter. Type Troubleshooting into the Start menu Search box and select ‘Troubleshooting’. Select View All, then ‘Windows Media Player Library’. Follow the steps given.

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Step 6. By now, you should be able to listen to Flac files in WMP or VLC. Chances are, however, the only Flac files you have are the two test samples. Your favourite MP3 download store might offer Flac, but other sites specialise in lossless, high-bitrate audio. Take a look at and

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Step 7. Flac downloads are still a rarity, but you can rip CDs using the format. You’ll be limited by the CD’s 16bit, 44.1kHz sampling rate; even so, by using Flac instead of MP3 you’ll preserve a CD’s audio quality. In WMP, select Tools, Options. Select WAV (lossless) under Format on the Rip Music tab.

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Step 8. Rip tracks from CD in the same way as you would if you were storing them in Windows Media Audio (WMA) format. If you’re making new, higher-quality rips of tracks that you’ve previously ripped in another format, things will get less confusing if you rip them to a different folder.

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Step 9. Your WAV files can now be played in WMP in just the same way as MP3 or WMA, hopefully you’ll notice an improvement in audio quality. If you struggle to notice a difference, however, it may be that your audio hardware isn’t up to scratch.

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Step 10. Before continuing, take a look at your WAV files in Windows Explorer. You’ll find they’re huge. While MP3 files are typically 2MB to 4MB, depending on the length and bitrate, WAV tracks will often be around 40MB. If you’re happy with storing such large files, skip to Step 14 for advice on recording your own lossless audio.

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Step 11. Flac files are typically around 50 percent the size of WAV files of the same sampling rate, but sound just as good. If you want to save disk space, convert your WAV files to Flac. Download and unzip FlicFlac. There’s no need to install the program; simply double-click FlicFlac to launch it.

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Step 12. In FlicFlac, ensure the ‘to Flac’ button is depressed and ‘Delete input file’ selected. Click within the area labelled ‘Select or Drop Files’. When the ‘Select a file to convert’ window opens, select the file(s) you want to convert. We recommend you convert multiple files simultaneously, one album at a time.

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Step 13. Having converted WAV to Flac, it’s likely that your files will be missing the artist information and album artwork. If this happens, right-click the album in WMP’s library and select ‘Find album info’. If it doesn’t find it automatically, enter the name of the album when the Search box appears and select it from the results.

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Step 14. Windows’ Sound Recorder lets you record high quality audio from a microphone. Click Start, Control Panel, ‘Hardware and Sound’, ‘Manage audio devices’. Select the microphone and choose Properties on the Recording tab, then select a sampling rate on the Advanced tab. After recording, convert the WAV file to Flac.

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