Once considered more of a nuisance than a weapon, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are now potent arsenals for causing disruption.
In February 2018, a record-breaking amplification attack was pointed at code repository GitHub, and in late 2016, Mirai crawled the internet for publicly insecure internet of things (IoT) devices to create a massive, and powerful, botnet.
DDoS attacks are often seen as a global phenomenon that affects ISPs and large datacentres. But the daily damage is done by much smaller attacks on vulnerable, sometimes poorly defended resources such as websites belonging to well-known organisations.
Read on for some of the most notorious DDoS attacks, big and small.