Oracle, Microsoft, and Apple all have a programming language ranked prominently in an industry index that monitors language use, but Google's efforts have yet to yield results, according to an official with Tiobe, which publishes the monthly Tiobe Programming Community Index.

In the March index, released over the weekend, Google saw its Go language drop out of the top 50 while Google's Dart language was ranked 78th. Oracle's Java language ranked first, used by 17.1% of developers, while Microsoft's C# came in at the third spot, used by 8.24% of developers. The Microsoft Visual Basic language was ranked seventh, used by 4.37% of developers. Objective-C, preferred by Apple and used for developing applications for the iPhone and iPad tablet, was ranked fifth, used by 7.38% of developers.

Tiobe managing director Paul Jansen said Google "tried very hard the last couple of years to get its own programming languages in the market. They did a lot of PR for it, but they failed for Go and it seems Dart is going to the same way, too.  Google is known for its innovation and instant successes, so this is a bit of a disappointment."

Also faring well in the March index was JavaScript, which jumped from the 10th spot in March 2011 to the eighth spot this month, used by 3.87% of developers. "Since websites depend more and more on JavaScript, it is expected that JavaScript's popularity will rise further in the near future," Tiobe said in its index. JavaScript had been used by just 1.87% of developers in the March 2011 index.  

"JavaScript is used everywhere a little," Jansen said. "Almost every web page uses JavaScript, but only as one of the many technologies that are used to assemble a complete website.  Hence, JavaScript will probably never rule the complete world because it only solves part of a problem, i.e. only client-side web programming."

The index gauges popularity by examining hits about a particular language on popular search engines.  Despite being ranked first, Java dropped in usage from a year ago at the same time, when 19.71% of developers used it. Objective-C saw a dramatic rise from a year ago; it was used by just 3.5% of developers in March 2011.

Other languages in the top 10 included C, ranked second with 17.09% of developers using it; C++, ranked fourth (8.047%);  PHP, sixth (5.55%);  Python came in ninth (3.3%), and Perl 10th (2.7%). Python had been used by 5.7% of developers a year ago.