1. Core memory
MIT’s famous Lincoln Laboratory was founded in 1951 with federal funds to develop a national air defense system. Existing computer systems weren’t able to process data fast enough to support collecting and analysing information from multiple radar installations and allow real-time response. MIT’s Jay Forrester, who had earlier developed the Whirlwind computer, came up with the idea of using an array of magnetic cores to store information. Magnetic core memory enabled the development of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air-defence system and became the dominant form of random access memory until the development of large-scale integration circuits in the 1970s.