Hackers have started to improve their software by using the same techniques that made Linux and Apache successes.

That's according to research from computer security company McAfee. It highlights the growing use of 'bots' as an example of how open-source techniques have changed the rules.

Unlike viruses of the past, bots tend to be written by a group of authors, who often collaborate by using the same tools and techniques as open source developers, said Dave Marcus, security research and communications manager with McAfee's Avert Labs.

"Over the last year and a half, we've noticed how bot development in particular has latched on to open-source tools and the open-source development model," he said.

The current generation of bot software has grown to the point where open-source software development tools make a natural fit.

With hundreds of source files now being managed, developers of the Agobot family of malware, for example, are using the open-source Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software to manage their project.

McAfee researchers have described this use of open-source techniques in a new magazine. Called "Sage," the publication features a cover story entitled "Paying a price for the open-source advantage" in its inaugural issue. McAfee plans to publish Sage every six months, Marcus said.

Marcus said his company is drawing attention to the open-source trend in order to educate users, and not as an attempt to discredit open-source alternatives to its own proprietary software products.

"We think [open-source anti-virus products] are fine. They've never been something that was really in the same class as ours, but we've always been big supporters of open-source anti-virus," he said.

However, Marcus did take issue with security researchers who distribute samples of malicious software, a practice known as full disclosure.

"We're not taking aim at the open-source movement; we're talking about the full-disclosure model and how that effectively serves malware development," he said.

Marcus's opinion was not well-received by one security professional.

Full disclosure serves legitimate researchers and helps users by making vendors more responsive, said Stefano Zanero, chief technology officer with Secure Network SRL.

"I drive an A-class Mercedes," he said. "And I feel much safer since [a] car magazine revealed that the original design of the A-class was flawed," he added.

"Research works on disclosure, not on secrets," Zanero added.